NFHS-5: Only 1 in 10 men use condoms, female sterilisation most common contraceptive

admin December 2, 2021
Updated 2021/12/02 at 1:55 PM

According to the current National Family Health Survey-5 (2019-2021), less than one in 10 males in India use condoms, while almost four in 10 women undergo sterilisation to prevent pregnancy. Female sterilisation is also on the increase, particularly in urban India.

According to the NFHS, just 9.5 % of males used condoms, whereas 37.9% of women were sterilised. Though urban India has a higher rate of condom usage than rural India, the general trend is similar: 7.6% of males in rural India and 13.6% of men in urban India use condoms, while 38.7% of women in rural India and 36.3% of women in urban India have been sterilised.

Female sterilisation has increased throughout the nation, from 36% in NFHS-4 (2015-2016) to 37.9% in NFHS-5. Female sterilisation rose in NFHS-5 compared to NFHS-4 in 19 of the 36 States/UTs. In 11 states and UTs, the increase was more than 5%. Bihar (14.1% to 34.8%), Goa (13.6% to 29.9 %), and Madhya Pradesh (9.7% to 51.9%) were the states with the biggest increases in female sterilisation.

Condom usage was less than 10% in 23 of the 36 States/UTs for which data was available. Uttarakhand (25.6 %) and the Union Territory of Chandigarh have the highest condom usage rates (31.1% ). The silver lining is that condom usage has increased from 5.6% to 9.5% between the two surveys.

However, the failure to use condoms is not due to a lack of knowledge; according to the NFHS 5, 82% are aware that using condoms on a regular basis might minimise the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. However, studies demonstrate that condom promotion for HIV/AIDS prevention causes misunderstanding in condom acceptability among married couples.

“Because family planning is seen as a woman’s duty, the use of condoms is likewise low.” For males, sex is just a source of pleasure. It’s usually either about procreation or the fear of becoming pregnant for women. Condoms are also thought to lessen enjoyment by men. According to the NFHS-4 survey, 40% of males believe it is the duty of women to prevent pregnancy,” says Poonam Muttreja, Executive Director of the Population Foundation of India.

“Male sterilisation is often misunderstood, which contributes to the high incidence of female sterilisation. Male sterilisation has always had a small part of the family planning market, despite the fact that it is safer, faster, and simpler. People worry it will affect their virility and physically weaken them, making them unsuitable to work. “There are a lot of myths and misconceptions out there,” she explains.

According to a research published in the Indian Journal of Medical Research in 2014 and written by Balaiah Donta, other hurdles include lack of privacy in shops when purchasing condoms, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual pleasure with condoms, and husband’s alcohol usage.

Female sterilisation is also preferable over other reversible contraceptive techniques such as tablets (5.1%), injectables (0.6%), and intra-uterine devices (0.6%) (2.1% ).

“Most women think about family planning not for postponing and spacing but for completing the family size,” says Vinod Manning, CEO of the Ipas Development Foundation and member of the Pratigya Campaign’s CAG.

“We must alter our habits and societal standards.” To encourage males to become more involved in family planning, mass media initiatives are required. Not only should social and behaviour change communication promote condoms, but it should also challenge gender stereotypes and position men as responsible partners. It’s important to instil values like spousal communication and joint decision-making. Ms Muttreja adds, “We should also try to reach people while they are young, when it is easier to change mindsets.”


Source: The Hindu

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