The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) aims to send an explorer to Phobos, a Martian moon, in 2024 to gather 10 grams of dirt and return it to Earth in 2029. (ahead of the United States and China). Oil on Phobos is most likely a mix of materials from the moon and Mars that have been scattered by sandstorms. Importance: Collecting samples from a variety of locations on Phobos might help researchers uncover evidence of life on Mars. Scientists also want to understand more about the evolution of the Martian ecosystem. The Perseverance rover from NASA has landed in a crater on Mars, where it will gather 31 samples that will be brought to Earth in 2031 with the aid of the European Space Agency. China became the second country to land and operate a spacecraft on Mars in May, with intentions to return samples in 2030.
InSight, launched in 2018, and the Curiosity rover, launched in 2012, are two additional NASA landers on Mars. The following missions are currently investigating Mars: Odyssey, MAVEN, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars 2020 are three US missions (Perseverance Rover & Ingenuity Helicopter). Exo Mars and Mars Express are two European spacecraft. Mangalyaan is one from India. Tianwen-1,(orbiter & rover) is from china. Emirates Mars Mission, Hope Spacecraft is from the United Arab Emirates.
Source: The Hindu